• 你知道离心泵的损耗在哪里,如何提高离心泵的效率吗?
  • 本站编辑:振欣透平机械有限公司(原杭州振兴工业泵制造有限公司)发布日期:2019-09-15 12:27 浏览次数:pubd
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离心泵是采用电机运转带动叶轮旋转,通过离心力的作用完成输送,离心泵是一种能量转换的机器,能量的转换过程必然伴随能量的损失,而效率就是这种转换的量度,怎样提高离心泵的效率,减少能量的损失呢?就必须弄清楚泵内能量的损耗。泵内的能量损耗主要包括以下三方面:


Centrifugal pump is a kind of energy conversion machine. The energy conversion process must be accompanied by the loss of energy. Efficiency is the measure of this conversion. How to improve the efficiency of centrifugal pump and reduce the loss of energy? It is necessary to understand the loss of energy in the pump. The energy loss in the pump mainly includes the following three aspects:


1、离心泵水力损失


1。 Hydraulic loss of centrifugal pump


泵过流部分(从进口到出口)液体的流体必然有速度大小和方向改变引起的损失,这两部分就是水力损失。要减少这部分损失,除了提高过流部件的光洁度外,尽量选用优秀的水力模型。


The fluid flow in the flow passage part of the pump (from the inlet to the outlet) must have the loss caused by the change of velocity and direction, which is the hydraulic loss. In order to reduce this part of the loss, in addition to improving the smoothness of the overflow components, the best hydraulic model should be selected as far as possible.

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2、离心泵机械损耗


2。 Mechanical Loss of Centrifugal Pumps


主要是液体和叶轮前后盖板外表面及泵腔的摩擦损失(也叫圆盘损失)。圆盘损失所占比例较大,甚至达到占有效功率的30%。试验表明圆盘损失和转速的三次方成正比,和叶轮外径的五次方成正比。因此,叶轮外径越大,圆盘损失也越大。虽然圆盘损失和转速的三次方成正比,但在给定的扬程下,随之转速的提高,叶轮外径相应地减少(可以认为泵转速的提高一倍,叶轮外径减少一半),圆盘损失成五次方比例下降,所以,随着转速的提高,圆盘损失并不增加,反而下降,这是发展高速泵的原因之一。


It is mainly the friction loss (also called disk loss) of the outer surface of the front and rear cover plates of the liquid and impeller and the pump chamber. Disk loss accounts for a large proportion, even up to 30% of the effective power. Experiments show that the loss of disk is proportional to the cubic power of rotational speed and to the quintic power of impeller outer diameter. Therefore, the larger the outer diameter of the impeller, the greater the disc loss. Although the loss of the disk is proportional to the cubic of the rotational speed, the outer diameter of the impeller decreases accordingly with the increase of the rotational speed at a given head (it can be considered that the increase of the rotational speed of the pump doubles and the outer diameter of the impeller reduces by half), and the loss of the disk decreases in a quintic proportion. Therefore, with the increase of the rotational speed, the loss of the disk does not increase. On the contrary, it declined, which is one of the reasons for the development of high-speed pumps.


3、容积损失


3。 Volume loss


叶轮的一部分液体经叶轮密封环间隙泄露回到叶轮进口而得不到有效利用,形成损失。因此,密封环的间隙应是越小越好,但由于加工和装配等原因,过小的间隙可能形成偏磨或卡死,国家标准对各种类型的泵的间隙做了专门的规定。


A part of the liquid in the impeller leaks back to the impeller inlet through the clearance of the sealing ring of the impeller, and can not be effectively utilized, resulting in loss. Therefore, the clearance of the sealing ring should be as small as possible, but due to processing and assembly reasons, too small clearance may form eccentric wear or jam, the national standard has made special provisions for the clearance of various types of pumps.


提高离心泵效率应采取的措施:


Measures should be taken to improve the efficiency of centrifugal pumps:


1、选用新泵时,应选大厂家生产的泵,以保证离心泵高效率。更换低效离心泵。更换时,选用与实际运行工况参数相接近的离心泵,保证了更换后的泵始终在高效状态下运行。更换低效、高耗离心泵后,可提高泵效10%左右。


1. When selecting new pumps, the pumps produced by large manufacturers should be selected to ensure the high efficiency of centrifugal pumps. Replace inefficient centrifugal pumps. When replacing, the centrifugal pump, which is close to the actual operating conditions, is selected to ensure that the replaced pump always operates in an efficient state. After replacing the low efficiency and high consumption centrifugal pump, the pump efficiency can be increased by about 10%.


2、严格按照离心泵操作规程,启泵前一要进行盘泵,打开进口阀门,关闭出口阀门,进行排气放空,检查泵的进口压力是否符合要求。防止供液压力低和流量不足而引起泵的气蚀现象发生。


2。 In strict accordance with the operating rules of centrifugal pumps, the disc pump should be carried out before starting the pump, the inlet valve should be opened, the outlet valve should be closed, and the exhaust gas should be exhausted to check whether the inlet pressure of the pump meets the requirements。 To prevent pump cavitation caused by low hydraulic pressure and insufficient flow。


3、变频节能技术的应用。对设计参数大于实际运行工况的离心泵,加装变频调速装置后,始终运行在高效区。


3. Application of frequency conversion energy-saving technology. For centrifugal pumps whose design parameters are larger than the actual operating conditions, the centrifugal pumps always run in the high efficiency area after installing frequency conversion speed regulating device.


4、在主要离心泵上推广应用高效节能的永磁调速电机及双功率电机等新型节能产品。


4。 Promote the application of new energy-saving products such as high-efficiency and energy-saving permanent magnet speed-regulating motor and dual-power motor on the main centrifugal pumps。

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5、定期清理过滤缸,检查管线连接,保证离心泵进液管路畅通。


5。 Clean the filter cylinder regularly and check the pipeline connection to ensure the smooth flow of the centrifugal pump intake pipeline。


6、定期对离心泵进行泵效检测,对泵效低的泵组,要及时查找原因,采取相应措施加以解决。


6。 Pump efficiency testing of centrifugal pumps should be carried out regularly。 For pumps with low pump efficiency, the causes should be found in time and corresponding measures should be taken to solve them。


7、离心泵的维护。


7. Maintenance of centrifugal pumps.


(1)要经常对离心泵轴端密封进行检查和调整,降低容积损失;


(1) The seal of the shaft end of centrifugal pump should be checked and adjusted regularly to reduce the volume loss;


(2)当离心泵累计运行1万h后,应进行大修,恢复泵效;在离心泵上推广应用波纹管密封技术,彻底消除离心泵外漏,提高容积效率。


(2) When the centrifugal pump runs for 10,000 hours, it should be overhauled to restore the pump efficiency; the bellows sealing technology should be popularized in centrifugal pumps to eliminate the leakage of centrifugal pumps and improve the volumetric efficiency。

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